Characteristics of cable industry in China
1)Combination of discrete production and process production
The production of wires and cables,that is,copper and aluminum are used as the main raw materials,and different materials are attached to them through corresponding stretching and twisting,so as to complete the whole production process.This leads to the need to change different equipment according to different production requirements in the production process,but in a specific equipment,it is continuous to complete several processes.This feature is the main feature of the cable industry,which also determines the production management of the cable industry.The whole production circulation process must be effectively managed and refined to a specific equipment.
2)Combination of inventory oriented and order oriented
The production of wire and cable industry is typical on-demand production,that is,all kinds of plans are based on sales orders.At the same time,due to the particularity of market demand,the sales and production management of enterprises are based on sales orders.However,in the production of wire and cable products,there are many inventory oriented production to meet customer needs,mainly manifested in the wire and strong versatility and standardization of medium and low voltage cable,specific performance for the customer demand urgent,multiple start-up loss,short production cycle and small amount of capital.The above characteristics determine that the production plan of cable industry must meet the requirements of production to order and production oriented to inventory.Provide a more perfect sales analysis function,in order to meet customer demand and enterprise production,as far as possible to reduce the plan,reduce the corresponding capital occupation.
3)There are many kinds of products,complete specifications and standards
Although there are not many raw materials in the production of wire and cable industry,there are hundreds of categories and tens of thousands of products.From the current implementation of enterprises,the minimum products are more than 10000.Although the above products are not produced every month,more than 300 kinds of products are produced every month,and they are constantly changing every month.At the same time,because enterprises want to adapt to the changes of the market,they need to adjust the production standards according to the requirements of the market.As a result,there are often several standards for the same specification of products.The above characteristics bring trouble to the production planning management of cable industry,objectively aggravate the complexity of enterprise planning management,and also cause considerable difficulty to the cost management of enterprises.
4)Customer demand diversification,production orders change frequently,wire and cable industry production,although there are corresponding national standards,industry standards.However,in the actual production of enterprises,the requirements of customers are diverse,and there are great changes,such as delivery time and production requirements.As a result,the production order must be changed accordingly,which makes the production management very difficult.According to the analysis of implementing enterprises,the proportion of change after order confirmation accounts for more than 10%of the total sales volume.
Chemically,plastic is a polymer,which is made up of many units repeatedly.Since 1976,plastics have become the most used materials by human beings.Up to now,there are more than 300 kinds of plastics put into production in the world,which have become an indispensable part of human life,and are still developing,such as nano plastics,optical fibers,conductive plastics,magnetic plastics and memory plastics.
High pressure materials:generally pure high-pressure raw materials have soft handle and high transparency of particles.There is no white fracture shadow on the cut surface or crease,and there is wax smell after burning.The wire drawing is not long after burning.The toughness is easy to break.The transparency of particles is high.The melting point is generally about 160.There are some high-pressure raw materials on the market with PA or PP components,which are generally distinguished as follows:PE+PA:it is difficult to open or break the film with two hands,After burning,the flame is a little burst,with the peculiar smell of PA,and the caking area is yellow after burning.Generally,this kind of film is relatively thick.After several layers of white film are stacked,you can see yellowing,and the particle incision has white knife marks.In foreign imported films,such modified films are easy to appear in industrial films and greenhouse films.PE+PP:the film has a little hardness,and the hands tear is very brittle,and the fracture is smooth,There is no pure high-pressure film teeth.After burning,the wire drawing is longer,with a certain amount of curl(depending on the content of PP,the curly range is determined).Generally,some of them will be encountered on the clothing film
It is easy for beginners to neglect the difference between LDPE and PVC soft film.PVC soft film is generally very bright,and its toughness is stronger than that of high-pressure film.The simplest identification method is burning.PVC can't burn,with pungent smell(slightly toxic).Let's start with low-voltage:electronic wire and terminal wire,low-voltage film feels hard,hands swing with noise,and general models of high-end film have teeth after hand tearing,Almost the film fracture is relatively smooth,but there are white fracture marks in the fracture area,the particle transparency is not high,with translucent shape.The combustion smell is waxy,and the wire drawing is long and straight,and the melting point is about 190.Generally speaking,the scraping and air cutting are used for film-forming particles.In the low-pressure materials,a special kind of plastic should be mentioned.I don't know the name of the industry,commonly known as low-density,which generally appears in large-scale ones,This kind of plastic can't be pulled out at all except for wire drawing.Other low voltage identification methods mentioned above are basically the same.This kind of plastic can't be granulated.It's easy to make a loss!Be careful.High and low pressure materials are usually used more in barrels,and medium and low-voltage materials in films also have a certain proportion of linear high-voltage components,generally about 20%,The proportion of high-pressure components can be judged by the hardness of raw materials,the length of wire drawing and the number of viewing points after the film is illuminated!
At last,we talk about propylene:the handle is hard,there is a loud noise when swinging,the hand is easy to tear,the fracture is very straight,and the particle transparency is high.After burning,it has the peculiar smell of propylene.The long winding is strong.The melting point is about 150.The clustering products of propylene are easy to be confused with low pressure,and there are white marks at the fracture points.It is recognized that the smell of drawing and burning is the smell after drawing and burning,The identification method is similar to that of high pressure above
The toxicity of plastics,we can say for sure that all plastics are toxic.The production process,use process,recycling or treatment process will produce different degrees of toxicity.In fact,it can be divided into environmental toxicity and human health toxicity.However,generally speaking,the toxicity to the environment will eventually affect human health.As far as plastics are concerned,the main body of which is high polymer.Basically,the toxicity of polymer is very weak.The higher the molecular weight,the lower the toxicity.The same kind of plastic will have different toxicity due to different polymerization degree and production process.Generally speaking,the toxicity of plastics mainly comes from the non polymerized monomers,as well as various additives,pigments and plasticizers.The toxicity of plastics is a big topic.We have no way to specify which plastics have the highest toxicity and which have the lowest toxicity.This is determined by many other factors,but there is still a general distinction.
Polyvinyl chloride(PVC)is an amorphous thermoplastic containing microcrystalline.It is one of the most widely used general-purpose plastics,and its output ranks second(second only to PE).Because PVC has good water resistance,in addition,PVC has flame retardant properties,because PVC will release chlorine atoms which inhibit combustion when burning,so it is widely used in the manufacture of water pipes,shower curtains and so on.PVC has a wide range of uses,including the production of agricultural PVC films,wires,paste products,hard tube boards,bottles,LP records,fibers and so on.Good performance,water resistance,acid resistance,alkali resistance,but also resistant to a variety of solvents,good electrical insulation,low price,wide source of raw materials,which are the main reasons for its wide use.
Because the viscosity flow temperature(136℃)of PVC is very close to that of decomposition temperature(140℃),it is very difficult to process PVC.Plasticizer should be added to reduce the viscosity flow temperature.In addition,as mentioned above,PVC is an amorphous polymer containing microcrystals(containing 5%crystallites),and the melting point of microcrystals is as high as 200℃.This knot PVC processing is very harmful.Plasticizer should be added to reduce its melting point.In 2000,73%of the additives in the world additive market were used for PVC,10%for polyolefins,5%for styrene polymers,and the rest(12%)for various engineering thermoplastic and thermosetting materials.Pure PVC itself is non-toxic,but in the PVC plastic products we come into contact with,it contains a large number of additives,which is a great source of its toxicity.Animal experiments have found that phthalein,a chemical additive that can make PVC softer,has a great impact on the kidney,liver and testis of human body,which will lead to cancer and kidney damage,damage the human body's functional reconstruction system and affect development.In addition,non polymerized monomer,PVC itself is non-toxic,but vinyl chloride monomer and degradation products have certain toxicity,and PVC degradation under high temperature and ultraviolet radiation can cause hepatic angiosarcoma.If urea formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde plastics are not completely reacted in the manufacturing process,a large amount of free formaldehyde often exists.Formaldehyde is a protoplasm toxin of cells.If animals ingest formaldehyde orally,focal hepatocyte necrosis and lymphocyte infiltration can occur in the liver.In addition,the chlorine contained in PVC makes it produce a lot of dioxin in the process of combustion,which will pollute the environment.
There are three main types of fresh-keeping films on the market:PE,PVC and PVDC.The physical properties of PVC film are better than that of PE film.Because there are chlorine atoms with strong electronegativity in PVC molecules,the molecular polarity is larger than that of PE,so the hardness and rigidity are higher than those of PE,and they have higher strength(pressure resistance),surface hardness and smaller elongation.
PVC products are all around us.Sometimes we will inevitably use it.So please pay attention to the following three points:
1.PVC products will precipitate lead when contacting with solvents such as ethanol and ether,so it is not suitable to store alcoholic food with PVC plastic products.
2.When PVC meets oil-bearing food,lead will dissolve into food,so it is not suitable for packaging oil-bearing food.
3.When the service temperature of PVC plastics is higher than 50℃,HCl will slowly precipitate,which is harmful to human health.At the same time,high temperature will also promote its degradation,affecting the service life of plastic products,and the degradation products are also toxic.According to the report at 7:32 in the voice of China news,China Southern Power Grid Corporation successfully carried out live line work on the±800 kV UHV DC transmission line from Yunnan to Guangzhou,realizing the first live line maintenance of the highest voltage DC transmission line in the world.At the same time,China's first UHV transmission project,1000 kV Southeast Shanxi Nanyang,Jingmen UHV AC test project,has been operating safely for one year.
These two lines are not only independently researched and developed by the Chinese people,but also make many domestic UHV AC and DC product standards adopted as international standards.It took only four years for China's power transmission and transformation equipment manufacturing industry from the initial introduction,to the later catch-up,and then to the current leader.But after 15 to 20 years of the Soviet Union and Japan,where is the secret?Please listen to the voice of China's special interview with Zhang Guobao,director of the state energy administration.
Feng Ya:we know that China's power transmission and transformation equipment manufacturing industry has gone through the road of 15-20 years in the former Soviet Union and Japan in a short period of four years,and has also achieved a comprehensive transcendence.How do you think we have achieved this breakthrough and leap forward in just four years?
Zhang Guobao:there are many factors.First of all,China has a vast territory and abundant resources.If there is no market demand,there will be no support.For example,Japan does not have this demand.Although Japan is divided into several States,none of them has energy.It does not have this demand,and Japan's land area is relatively small.
Second,China has the advantage of concentrating our socialist forces on major events.We have concentrated the strength of the whole country.In the past,China's R&D of"two bombs and one satellite"has concentrated the strength of the whole country.I think China's system will affect the research and development of major equipment.Moreover,our country relies on the project.In the 1980s,I also took charge of major equipment.At that time,the open-pit mine equipment was made.Users say I don't want it.I'm willing to buy foreign ones.However,power transmission and transformation equipment relies on the needs of major national projects.The Three Gorges project,Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba projects,and the project of power transmission from the west to the east make the development of equipment closely combined with the needs of the project.I think this is an important factor for the success of major equipment.
What impact will the broad state-owned market demand,such as the leap forward development of power transmission and transformation,have on China's civil power supply and industrial power supply?
In the past few years,due to the rapid development,especially in some coastal areas,there are frequent reports of power rationing and power shortage due to the rapid development of some economically developed areas but lack of high-quality energy.However,through the allocation of resources,especially the large-scale power construction in recent years,this problem has at least been alleviated,and it can even be said that the phenomenon of power cut-off and power restriction as in the previous two years will not appear.So the breakthrough of China's power transmission and transformation equipment manufacturing industry and power equipment manufacturing industry shows what kind of international level of China's power equipment is?
China's current transmission and transformation technology is world-class,and even the advanced level of China's transmission network is more advanced than that of the United States.This is not to say that the science and technology of the United States is not as good as that of China.On the whole,their science and technology are much stronger than those of China.Because the development of power transmission and transformation lines in the United States is much earlier than that in China.It has already existed in the early 20th century,and has gradually developed since then.At that time,it emphasized freedom,and the voltage level was very chaotic.There were many voltage levels among them.There was no clear network concept for the same route.
For example,China is high-end connection,high-voltage connection,it may be high-voltage,low-voltage,so the United States and Canada blackout is not accidental.In this regard,the United States has visited China in recent years,and its senior management has also acknowledged this.I am not arrogant to say that we are stronger than the United States.The main reason is that in the process of historical development,China has been given a late mover advantage.The power transmission and transformation lines developed after the United States can adopt the most advanced technology of the times.
What kind of important enlightenment does the rapid development of power transmission and transformation equipment have on the independent innovation and localization of China's energy equipment manufacturing industry?
Through the research and development of higher voltage level,China's mechanical design and manufacturing level has been greatly improved,reaching the international advanced level and even surpassing the international advanced level in some fields.For example,large-scale polysilicon components,including high-end transformers,whether it is AC type 1kv or tributaries with an increase of 800kV,what has not been done in the world and China has not done For the first time in the world,China has made such complex power transmission and transformation equipment.Electronic wire,terminal line,it is a bit alarmist to say that the electronic wire manufacturing industry is facing a profit crisis,but it is an indisputable fact that the wire rod manufacturing industry has entered the era of low profit.A few days ago,from some of the situation reflected by the electronic wire industry,now the electronic wire manufacturing industry and other industries,the increasingly fierce competition,enterprise profits have entered a complex inflection point period:first,the road is more and more difficult,barriers are higher and higher;second,the difficulties are more and more,the indicators of electronic wire are higher and higher;third,the cost is higher and higher;fourth,the profit is more and more The harder it is to get.
Many people in the industry feel that the higher the profit rate of the cable manufacturing industry has become,the more difficult it is for the cable manufacturing enterprises to return to the mainstream business There is no doubt that the era of meager profit has gradually cleaned up the domestic electronic wire industry.So,in the era of low profit,what characteristics will the electronic wire manufacturing industry present?In this regard,some people have pointed out that,first,the price of electronic products can not be raised,and the profit space of enterprises is becoming increasingly tight;second,in order to obtain profits,enterprises and enterprises compete with each other,and the market competition is becoming increasingly fierce;third,business owners are in a low mood,some wait-and-see,some guard the two ends,and lack the enterprising and pioneering spirit.So how did the meager profit come into being?Some electronic wire enterprises also believe that the market is not standardized and disorderly competition is also a key factor leading to the low profit operation of the electronic wire manufacturing industry.The entry threshold of electronic wire manufacturing industry is very low.People outside the door always virtualize the profit of electronic wire manufacturing industry.They think that the technology content of electronic wire industry is not high,and the investment is low,the profit is high and the effect is quick.So they rush in,invest blindly and expand wantonly,so that the market is completely saturated.Once the market is saturated,the whole electronic wire industry will fall into a disordered state of competition.Therefore,in order to seize the limited market,we all fight for the price and take the way of low price competition.As a result,we lose the interests of the entire electronic wire industry.In addition,many people in the industry believe that there are not many strong brands of electronic products in China.Most of the electronic line enterprises are in the middle and low-grade way.For example,there are more than 2000 electronic line enterprises in Dongguan area,and the brand added value is not high,so the profit space is relatively narrow,and the enterprises can only make small profits.In addition,at present,a large number of foreign strong brands enter the domestic cable market,which is also a huge impact on the domestic cable products,but also will intensify the competition in the domestic electronic wire Market and affect the distribution of interest pattern.
Therefore,meager profit is the result of economic law and the framework of comprehensive factors.It is not transferred by human will and is a normal state.First of all,"meager profit"is an inevitable result of an industry entering a mature period.The financial crisis for China's electronic wire enterprises,such as a baptism of ice and fire,eliminated many disorderly operation,lack of competitiveness of cable enterprises and distribution stores,making the market mechanism more perfect and sound.It can be foreseen that after the financial crisis,the electronic line enterprises will accelerate the pace of maturity,the original era of high profits will come to an end,and a rational,balanced and low profit market will gradually form.Secondly,the reshuffle of the electronic line industry will also accelerate the advent of the era of meager profits.The competition in the cable industry is like a marathon race.There are so many competitors in front of us because of the low threshold in front of us.But when we run to the back,the distance will be widened,and those who can't run will gradually withdraw from the competition field,and the number of outstanding runners who continue to run is gradually reduced.During the crisis,there were more immovable players in China's electronic line industry,such as after a big shuffle.After the crisis,due to the fuller marketization and more intense competition,the shuffle will continue.After many rounds of reshuffle,the cable industry is bound to be like the home appliance industry,with even lower profits.Therefore,in the era of meager profit,facing the increasingly competitive wire market,how should enterprises act and"kill a blood channel"?First,operating independent brands.Once upon a time,many electronic wire enterprises thought that they were processing industry,without independent brand products,and electronic wire enterprises did not need and could not implement brand strategy.Dongguan Zhongzheng wire and Cable Technology Co.,Ltd.insisted on taking its own road and becoming its own brand.At present,it has become one of the top ten enterprises in Dongguan.And in the face of meager profit era,big price war will only make the enterprise scarred.Innovation is the magic weapon to gain profits at any time,and the era of low profit is no exception.Most of the low profit products may be similar in technology,with small differences in quality and performance,but these do not affect the innovation of enterprises.Through the innovation in technology,materials,appearance,production mode,marketing mode,management method,etc.,it is possible to find new profit sources,cost control points,new market areas and new profit models,so as to win profits.In short,enterprises must We should shift from cost strategy to technology and service strategy,and pay attention to technological innovation and perfect service provision.Second,strengthen internal management,electronic enterprise information,reduce costs,improve the competitiveness of enterprises.When the price of cable products is difficult to rise,only by strengthening the internal management can we obtain the profit needed by the enterprise.Third,the construction of a new industry innovation demonstration system combining production,learning and research can give full play to their respective advantages,concentrate on solving common problems in the cable industry technological innovation,accelerate the transformation and application of new technology achievements,and explore the R&D innovation mode of new industries.Fourth,promote the construction of industrial cluster innovation service platform to promote the upgrading of the structure of industrial cluster export products.The industrial innovation platform serves the small and medium-sized enterprises in industrial clusters with weak technology and product development ability and low management level.It provides comprehensive innovation services for enterprises,improves their innovation ability,technology,operation and management level,and accelerates the upgrading of export products of industrial clusters.Fifth,win by supply chain.One of the characteristics of low profit products is that the technical threshold is low,the product quality,performance differences are small,and the profit margin is low.Therefore,it is very difficult for anyone who wants to break through the technical difficulties,choose low-cost materials to replace them,and rely on a single enterprise to monopolize a certain market.Of course,in order to win in the era of meager profit,it is necessary for enterprises to maintain a low product cost.Therefore,enterprises should adopt various methods to reduce product costs,such as electronic wires and terminal wires www.sls998.com From the actual situation of low profit products,the quality and price of raw materials are an important factor in determining the cost of enterprises.According to statistics,the most effective way to reduce the cost is to reduce the cost of raw materials Among the 11 items,there are procurement negotiation,early suppliers,leveraged procurement,joint procurement,DFP for the convenience of procurement(DFP)and centralized procurement,which are related to the supply chain.Therefore,cable enterprises need to have the spirit of seizing the day and strive to cultivate the supply chain.Through cooperation with suppliers,they can jointly build a stable industrial chain,so as to reduce their respective capital share and improve the supply chain High product qualification rate,accelerate the speed of capital turnover,to ensure that each has the appropriate profit space.Finally,we should carry out the work from the aspects of improving the quality management ability of the electronic wire industry,the construction of corporate social responsibility,and industrial early warning,actively participate in the activities of industry associations,and put forward their own opinions on the coordination of price mechanism.We should not participate in price war,avoid vicious competition,maintain the basic price of the same industry,participate in equal competition in quality and service,improve the credibility of enterprises'honest operation,make the development of the industry orderly,efficient and standardized,and avoid excessive disorder development
Competition and unfair competition.This is not only conducive to industrial upgrading and the improvement of industry profit level,but also has far-reaching practical and historical significance for establishing a good image of China's electronic wire industry.
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